Opioid Painkiller Prescribing Varies Widely Among States

Capsule and Pills“Health care providers wrote 259 million prescriptions for opioid painkillers in 2012 – many more in some states than in others – according to a Vital Signs report released this month by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that highlights the danger of overdose. The report also has an example of a state that reversed its overdose trend.

Health care providers in the highest prescribing state, Alabama, wrote almost three times as many of these prescriptions per person as those in the lowest prescribing state, Hawaii. Most of the highest prescribing states were in the South. Previous research has shown that regional variation in use of prescriptions cannot be explained by the underlying health status of the population.

“Prescription drug overdose is epidemic in the United States. All too often, and in far too many communities, the treatment is becoming the problem,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “Overdose rates are higher where these drugs are prescribed more frequently. States and practices where prescribing rates are highest need to take a particularly hard look at ways to reduce the inappropriate prescription of these dangerous drugs.”

The report suggested that states consider ways to increase use of prescription drug monitoring programs, and  consider policy options (including laws and regulation) relating to pain clinics (facilities that specialize in pain treatment) to reduce prescribing practices that are risky to patients.

http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0701-opioid-painkiller.html

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – July 2014

 

Overdose Deaths from Opioids, Heroin on the Rise

News Update 7-18-14“Overdose deaths from both prescription opioids and heroin increased in 2011, the most recent year available, according to new data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

While prescription opioid deaths followed a more than decade long trend and increased by about 2% from 2010 to 2011, to 16,917; heroin deaths jumped by about 44% in the same span of time to 4,397.

Officials with the CDC said the increase in heroin deaths may be partly due to users having less access to prescription opioids and switching to the illicit drug.

Leonard Paulozzi, a physician and researcher with the CDC, said about 75% of heroin users say they started out by using prescription opioids.

Paulozzi said doctors need to do a better of job of screening for opioid abusers by checking prescription drug monitoring programs in their states for patients who are doctor shopping and using urine screens to detect if they are using illicit drugs.”

http://www.jsonline.com/watchdog/watchdogreports/overdose-deaths-from-opioids-heroin-on-the-rise-b99302962z1-265452991.html

Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel – July 2, 2014

Top 5 Percent of Opioid Prescribers Write 40 Percent of US Narcotic Prescriptions

doctor and prescription bottle“Forty percent of U.S. narcotic prescriptions in 2011-2012 were written by only five percent of opioid prescribers, according to a study Express Scripts  presented today at Academy Health’s annual research meeting.

The study identifies prescribers who prescribe opioids at a much higher rate than peers who are in the same specialty, treat patients of similar age, and practice in the same geographic region.

According to the analysis, high prescribers wrote an average of 3.5 times more opioid prescriptions — 4.6 prescriptions per patient compared to 1.3 in their peer group. Opioid cost per patient per day of therapy was nearly 5 times higher, on average, for patients treated by high prescribers.

Internal medicine and family practice are among the specialties with the highest prevalence of high prescribers, even after accounting for the volume of prescribers in these two specialties.”

http://www.marketwatch.com/story/top-5-percent-of-opioid-prescribers-write-40-percent-of-us-narcotic-prescriptions-2014-06-09

Source: MarketWatch.com – June 9, 2014

Death by Prescription Painkiller – First Major Review Provides Evidence of Sharp Increase in Deaths from Painkillers in US and Canada and Leading Causes

The number of deaths involving commonly prescribed painkillers is higher than the number of deaths by overdose from heroin and cocaine combined, according to researchers at McGill University. In a first-of-its-kind review of existing research, the McGill team has put the spotlight on a major public health problem: the dramatic increase in deaths due to prescribed painkillers, which were involved in more than 16,000 deaths in 2010 in the U.S. alone. Currently, the US and Canada rank #1 and #2 in per capita opioid consumption.

In an effort to identify and summarize available evidence, Nicholas King, of the Biomedical Ethics Unit in the Faculty of Medicine and his team conducted a systematic review of existing literature, comprehensively surveying the scientific literature and including only reports with quantitative evidence.

“We also wanted to find out why thousands of people in the U.S and Canada are dying from prescription painkillers every year, and why these rates have climbed steadily during the past two decades,” says King. “We found evidence for at least 17 different determinants of increasing opioid-related mortality, mainly, dramatically increased prescription and sales of opioids; increased use of strong, long-acting opioids like Oxycontin and methadone; combined use of opioids and other (licit and illicit) drugs and alcohol; and social and demographic factors.”

“We found little evidence that Internet sales of pharmaceuticals and errors by doctors and patients–factors commonly cited in the media — have played a significant role,” Prof. King adds.

The findings point to a complicated “epidemic” in which physicians, users, the health care system, and the social environment all play a role, according to the researchers.

The results of this research are published in the American Journal of Public Health.

Source: McGill University – June 17, 2014

ASAM Article: Twelve Step Recovery and Medication Assisted Therapies

“You’re not clean and sober if you keep taking that medication from your doctor!”

“You’re just substituting one drug for another.”

“You are depressed because you are not grateful enough.”

These and other statements are often made to 12-step members who are legitimately prescribed and taking FDA approved medications to treat their addictions and other co-occurring illnesses. Unfortunately, this so- called “advice” from well-intended but misinformed members is not founded in scientific or 12-step philosophy and violates a long held 12- step policy of ” AA members should not give medical advice to each other.”

http://www.asam.org/magazine/read/article/2014/06/12/twelve-step-recovery-and-medication-assisted-therapies

Source: American Society of Addiction Medicine – June 12, 2014

The Hidden Dangers of Benzodiazepines (Infographic)

benzos 5-28-14“In the last year there have been several studies/stories about the risks associated with benzodiazepine abuse.  And while benzodiazepines have been prescribed for decades to treat anxiety and seizure disorders, the possible threat of overusing them is real and with that comes dependency, overdose and the potentiality of death.  Did you know that since 2010, there have been 6,507 US drug overdose deaths that involved benzodiazepines?  Because of this rising number, Foundations Recovery Networkcreated an infographic to help familiarize those about benzodiazepines but most importantly help create awareness regarding the possible addiction with benzodiazepines.”

Broken down in sections, the infographic (http://www.dualdiagnosis.org/benzodiazepine-addiction/) goes into detail about:

  • What are benzodiazepines: their brand names and the amount of prescriptions filled in the US in 2011, the number of related ER visits in 2010 and the confiscations by law enforcement for each associated drug.
  • Why prescribe benzodiazepines, specifically the disorders that are treated
  • Common side effects and contraindications with benzodiazepine use
  • Key statistics related to the dangers of abuse
  • Symptoms of overdose

Source: Foundations Recovery Network– May 2014

 

See Who’s Being Hurt by America’s Growing Prescription Drug Addiction

pills 12-20-12America’s burgeoning prescription drug addiction affects wide segments of society, including women, veterans, teens, healthcare providers and the middle and upper-middle class. This article provides some interesting statistics on these segments of society.

http://cironline.org/blog/post/see-who%E2%80%99s-being-hurt-americas-growing-prescription-drug-addiction-6359

Source: The Center for Investigative Reporting – May 13, 2014

Seniors and Prescription Drugs: As Misuse Rises, So Do the Toll

seniors“To assess the scope and impact of the prescription drug problem among older Americans, USA TODAY studied data from an array of federal agencies and private firms. Key findings:

  •  More prescriptions: The medical community is increasingly giving older patients prescriptions for two especially addictive drug classes: opioid pain relievers and benzodiazepines, psychoactive medications such as Xanax and Valium often used for anxiety. According to data collected from IMS Health, which tracks drug dispensing for the government, the 55 million opioid prescriptions written last year for people 65 and over marked a 20% increase over five years — nearly double the growth rate of the senior population. The number of benzodiazepine prescriptions climbed 12% over that period, to 28.4 million.
  • More misuse: In 2012, the average number of seniors misusing or dependent on prescription pain relievers in the past year grew to an estimated 336,000, up from 132,000 a decade earlier, according to survey data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Misuse is defined as using the drugs without a prescription or not as prescribed.
  •  More damage: Among people 55 and older seeking substance abuse treatment from 2007-11, there was a 46% jump in the share of cases involving prescription narcotics, SAMHSA data show. Annual emergency room visits by people 65 and over for misuse of pharmaceuticals climbed more than 50% during that time, to more than 94,000 a year. And the rate of overdose deaths among people 55 and older, regardless of drug type, nearly tripled from 1999-2010, to 9.4 fatalities per 100,000 people, based on data from by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.”

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/20/seniors-addiction-prescription-drugs-painkillers/9277489/

Source: USAToday.com – May 25, 2014

Painkiller Overdose Deaths Have Tripled: Government Report

“Overdose deaths from prescription narcotics tripled from 2009-2010, compared with a decade earlier, according to a new government report. Almost half of Americans are taking one or more prescription medications, the report found. An estimated 10.5 percent are prescribed painkillers.

The report found a large jump in the percentage of Americans taking prescription medication, according to HealthDay. From 2007 to 2010, about 48 percent of people said they were taking a prescription drug, up from 39 percent from 1988 to 1994.

About 90 percent of adults ages 64 and older took prescription medication in the past month, while 25 percent of children did so. About 10 percent of Americans said they had taken five or more prescription drugs in the previous month.”

http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/prescription-drugs/painkiller-overdose-deaths-have-tripled-government-report

Source: JoinTogether.org – May 15, 2014

Now Available From SAMHSA – Prescription Drug Abuse Fact Sheets

ROUND PILLSWould you like to add your organization’s name to any of a growing list of 20 SAMHSA prescription drug abuse fact sheets?

SAMHSA’s Preventing Prescription Abuse Workplace (PAW) Technical Assistance Center is pleased to offer reproducible PDFs of its 30 fact sheets with customized names added at no charge. The fact sheets are not copyrighted, and you are free to download them from the link, reproduce or print them in bulk, or reuse our text in your materials.

Two of the fact sheets introduced in May include: Prescription Drug Misuse Among Older Adults and Understanding The Problem and Youth and Prescription Drug Abuse.

The fact sheets can be accessed at: http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/icrc/Pages/SAMHSA-Prevention-of-Prescription-Drug-Abuse-in-th/SAMHSA-Fact-Sheets

Source: The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration- May 2014

Privacy Being Tightened for Prescription Drug Monitoring Databases

pills“The privacy of information contained in prescription drug monitoring databases is being tightened, The Wall Street Journal reports. Privacy advocates hail the trend, while law enforcement officials say it is hampering their attempts to curb prescription drug abuse.”

“The public and lawmakers are really starting to understand what kinds of threats to privacy come when we start centralizing great quantities of our sensitive personal information in giant electronic databases,” said Nathan Wessler, an attorney with the American Civil Liberties Union. The group represented patients and a doctor who challenged the Drug Enforcement Administration in the Oregon case.”

http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/legal/privacy-being-tightened-for-prescription-drug-monitoring-databases

Source: JoinTogether.org -May 7, 2014

Other National News of Interest

News From the States

National Institutes of Health Press Release: HHS Leaders Call For Expanded Use of Medications to Combat Opioid Overdose Epidemic

New England Journal of Medicine commentary describes that vital medications are currently underutilized in addiction treatment services and discusses ongoing efforts by major public health agencies to encourage their use

A national response to the epidemic of prescription opioid overdose deaths was outlined in the New England Journal of Medicine by leaders of agencies in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The commentary calls upon health care providers to expand their use of medications to treat opioid addiction and reduce overdose deaths, and describes a number of misperceptions that have limited access to these potentially life-saving medications. The commentary also discusses how medications can be used in combination with behavior therapies to help drug users recover and remain drug-free, and use of data-driven tracking to monitor program progress.

The commentary was authored by leaders of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) within the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).

“When prescribed and monitored properly, medications such as methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone are safe and cost-effective components of opioid addiction treatment,” said lead author and NIDA Director Nora D. Volkow, M.D. “These medications can improve lives and reduce the risk of overdose, yet medication-assisted therapies are markedly underutilized.”

Research has led to several medications that can be used to help treat opioid addiction, including methadone, usually administered in clinics; buprenorphine, which can be given by qualifying doctors; and naltrexone, now available in a once-a-month injectable, long-acting form. The authors stress the value of these medications and describe reasons why treatment services have been slow to utilize them. The reasons include inadequate provider education and misunderstandings about addiction medications by the public, health care providers, insurers, and patients. For example, one common, long-held misperception is that medication-assisted therapies merely replace one addiction for another – an attitude that is not backed by the science. The authors also discuss the importance of naloxone, a potentially life-saving medication that blocks the effects of opioids as a person first shows symptoms of an overdose.

The article describes how HHS agencies are collaborating with public and private stakeholders to expand access to and improve utilization of medication-assisted therapies, in tandem with other targeted approaches to reducing opioid overdoses.  For example, NIDA is funding research to improve access to medication-assisted therapies, develop new medications for opioid addiction, and expand access to naloxone by exploring more user-friendly delivery systems (for example, nasal sprays). CDC is working with states to implement comprehensive strategies for overdose prevention that include medication-assisted therapies, as well as enhanced surveillance of prescriptions and clinical practices. CDC is also establishing statewide norms to provide better tools for the medical community in making prescription decisions.

Charged with providing access to treatment programs, SAMHSA is encouraging medication-assisted therapy through the Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant as well as regulatory oversight of medications used to treat opioid addiction. SAMHSA has also developed an Opioid Overdose Toolkit  to educate first responders in the use of naloxone to prevent overdose deaths. The toolkit includes easy-to-understand information about recognizing and responding appropriately to overdose, specific drug-use behaviors to avoid, and the role of naloxone in preventing fatal overdose.

“SAMHSA’s Opioid Overdose Toolkit is the first federal resource to provide safety and prevention information for those at risk for overdose and for their loved ones,” said co-author and SAMHSA Administrator Pamela S. Hyde, J.D. “It also gives local governments the information they need to develop policies and practices to help prevent and respond appropriately to opioid-related overdose.”

CMS is working to enhance access to medication-assisted therapies through a more comprehensive benefit design, as well as a more robust application of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act.

“Appropriate access to medication-assisted therapies under Medicaid is a key piece of the strategy to address the rising rate of death from overdoses of prescription opioids,” said co-author Stephen Cha, M.D., M.H.S., chief medical officer for the Center for Medicaid and CHIP [Children’s Health Insurance Program] Services at CMS. “CMS is collaborating closely with partners across the country, inside and outside government, to improve care to address this widespread problem.”

However, the authors point out that success of these strategies requires engagement and participation of the medical community.

The growing availability of prescription opioids has increased risks for people undergoing treatment for pain and created an environment and marketplace of diversion, where people who are not seeking these medications for medical reasons abuse and sell the drugs because they can produce a high.

The press release can be accessed at: http://www.nih.gov/news/health/apr2014/nida-24.htm

The New England Journal of Medicine article can be accessed at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1402780?query=featured_home

Source: National Institutes of Health – April 24, 2014

Infographic: Benzodiazepine Use and Medication-Assisted Treatment

benzo2The Institute for Research, Education and Training in Addictions (IRETA) has prepared an infographic that addresses immediate consequences, long-term effects, and the relationship between benzodiazepine use and medication-assisted recovery.

The infographic is available for free download at: http://iretablog.org/2014/04/10/infographic-benzodiazepine-use-and-medication-assisted-treatment/

Source: The Institute for Research, Education and Training in Addictions – April 10, 2014

Dr. Jana Burson Blog: Insomnia Medications for Patients in Medication-Assisted Treatment

“In one of my recent blog entries, I talked about some simple measures that can help patients with insomnia, called sleep hygiene. Many times these methods can fix the problem, but other times, patients still can’t sleep well, which interferes with life. In these cases, medications may be of some help.”

The “Z” Medications

“The “Z” group of medications includes zolpidem (Ambien), zaleplon (Sonata), and eszopiclone (Lunesta). These medications, which are not benzodiazepines, have been touted as being safer and less addictive than older benzodiazepines, like temazepam (Restoril), triazolam (Halcion) or clonazepam (Klonopin). However, the “Z” medications stimulate the same brain receptors as benzodiazepines, and are all Schedule IV controlled substances, just like benzodiazepines.

I don’t prescribe the “Z” medications for patients on medication-assisted treatment with methadone or buprenorphine because they can cause overdose deaths in these patients. Also, these medications can give many patients with the disease of addiction the same impulse to misuse their medication. I’ve had patients develop problems with misuse and overuse of these medicines.”

Other Medications

Dr. Burson also discusses clonidine, gabapentin and muscle relaxers.

http://janaburson.wordpress.com/2014/04/12/insomnia-medications-for-patients-in-medication-assisted-treatment/

Source: Dr. Jana Burson – April 12, 2014

Surge in Narcotic Prescriptions for Pregnant Women

“Doctors are prescribing opioid painkillers to pregnant women in astonishing numbers, new research shows, even though risks to the developing fetus are largely unknown.

Of 1.1 million pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid nationally, nearly 23 percent filled an opioid prescription in 2007, up from 18.5 percent in 2000, according to a study published last week in the journal Obstetrics & Gynecology. That percentage is the largest to date of opioid prescriptions among pregnant women. Medicaid covers the medical expenses for 45 percent of births in the United States.”

The lead author, Rishi J. Desai, a research fellow at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, said he had expected to “see some increase in trend, but not this magnitude.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/15/science/surge-in-prescriptions-for-opioid-painkillers-for-pregnant-women.html

Source: NewYorkTimes.com – April 15, 2014

FDA Commissioner Margaret A. Hamburg Statement on Prescription Opioid Abuse

FDA“For more than a decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has been working to address the important public health problems associated with the misuse, abuse, addiction and overdose of opioid analgesics, while at the same time working to ensure continued access to effective and appropriate medications for millions of Americans currently suffering from pain. I firmly believe that these goals are compatible, and that actions to address one should not be at the expense of the other.

Tragically, the most recent data shows that more than 16,000 lives are lost each year due to opioid-related overdoses. In fact, drug overdose deaths, driven largely by prescription drug overdose deaths, are now the leading cause of injury death in the United States – surpassing motor vehicle crashes. We know that the illegal diversion, misuse, and abuse of prescription opioids are often fueled by inappropriate prescribing, improper disposal of unused medications, and the illegal activity of a small number of health care providers. This highlights the important role that education of prescribers and patients can play in addressing this epidemic. The FDA has taken steps to address this but more work remains to be done.

Combatting the serious public health problem of misuse, abuse, addiction and overdose from opioid analgesics is a high priority. Since 2001 the FDA has taken a number of actions designed to help address prescription opioid abuse and to encourage the development of new drug treatments for pain. These actions include:

  • Revising the labeling for opioid medications to foster their safe and appropriate use, including recent changes to the indications and safety warnings of extended-release and long-acting opioids.
  • Requiring that manufacturers conduct studies of the safety of long-term use of prescription opioids.
  • Improving appropriate prescribing by physicians and use by patients through educational materials required as a part of a risk mitigation strategy for extended-release and long-acting opioids.
  • Using the agency’s expedited review programs to advance development of new non-opioid medications to treat pain with the goal of bringing new non- or less-abusable products to market.
  • Working with other federal agencies and scientists to advance our understanding of the mechanisms for pain and how to treat it, including the search for new non-opioid medications for pain.
  • Recommending that hydrocodone-containing combination products have additional restrictions on their use by rescheduling them from Schedule III to Schedule II.
  • Strengthening surveillance efforts to actively monitor the changing nature of prescription opioid abuse and to identify emerging issues.
  • And, importantly, encouraging the development of medications to treat opioid abuse, such as buprenorphine for use in medication-assisted treatment, and to reverse opioid overdoses, such as naloxone.

Today’s FDA approval of Evzio (naloxone autoinjector) provides an important new tool in our arsenal to more effectively combat the devastating effects of opioid overdose, which is one part of our comprehensive work to support opioid safety. Reflecting the FDA’s commitment to encouraging important new therapies, the FDA’s review of Evzio was granted priority status, and the application was reviewed by the FDA in just 15 weeks.

This product is the first auto-injector designed to rapidly reverse the overdose of either prescription or illicit opioids. While the larger goal is to reduce the need for products like these by preventing opioid addiction and abuse, they are extremely important innovations that will help to save lives.

The FDA will continue to work to reduce the risks of abuse and misuse of prescription opioids, but we cannot solve this complex problem alone. A comprehensive and coordinated approach is needed; one that includes the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, the Drug Enforcement Administration and many of our sister agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as state and local governments, public health experts, health care professionals, addiction experts, researchers, industry, and patient organizations.

I am confident that this can be accomplished, but we will all need to work together to invest in strategies and responsible approaches that deter or mitigate the effects of abuse while preserving access to pain medicines for the patients that need them the most.”

http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm391590.htm

See related press release on EVZIO available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm391465.htm

Source: Federal Drug Administration – April 3, 2014

Medication Assisted Treatment: A Standard of Care. An interview with Elinore McCance-Katz, MD, PhD, Chief Medical Officer, SAMHSA

Edit-Dr.M-KNote: This interview was issued by SAMHSA’s HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions in their February 2014 eSolutions newsletter.

“We have a huge need in our country to treat mental health and substance use concerns, and we have a chronic shortage of specialty care programs with enough capacity to treat everyone with a substance use concern. It is our responsibility to expand access to this care in a way that allows greater choice of where individuals can receive treatment.

With the Affordable Care Act, the treatment of substance use disorders is now an essential benefit. Individuals with multiple complex healthcare needs, including mental health and substance use concerns, can be seen in integrated care settings and health homes.

We are going to see more and more integrated care. All healthcare providers, whether in primary care, mental health, or substance use treatment, will need to learn how to provide treatment for disorders they may not have historically treated. Providers who are not used to treating patients with certain types of problems may not feel confident about providing care. When that happens, the individual is less likely to get the care they need. Primary care providers especially will need to be ready to assess and provide treatment for clients who present with mental health and substance use concerns.

The Need for Medication Assisted Treatment

Medication assisted treatment (MAT) is a standard of care. There are a variety of medications that have been shown to be effective in treating substance use disorders and that can be used safely. Specifically, there are a number of FDA-approved medications for tobacco, alcohol and opioid abuse treatments.

MAT is an effective form of care, when medication is taken as prescribed, used properly, and the individual is engaged with other supports and services. With opioid use disorders, studies show that clients who get medical detoxification only have a greater than 90% relapse rate.

We have to think about how effective the treatment is, what the alternative is if not treated, and where an individual is in their recovery. Individuals with chronic relapsing diseases should have access to MAT. It’s just the standard of care. We cannot diminish the importance of that.

Substance use disorders are not simply treated by taking a medication. In fact, taking medications can be part of the problem. Just giving someone medication is not enough. Psychosocial interventions, counseling, and other services are absolutely necessary and will always be very important.

Integrated care providers are going to have to learn about how to use these medications. Many medications can be used within primary care. We’re going to see a spectrum of severity with clients in primary care. Some may need referral to specialty care and others can be treated at the primary care organization.”

The interview can be accessed at: http://www.atforum.com/addiction-resources/documents/SAMHSA-MAT-A-Standard-of-Care-Feb-2014.pdf

Source: The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration – February 2014

Prescriptions for Opioids Stabilizing After Fivefold Increase in 10-Year Span

Pg_3_pillsDeath rates from opioids have been soaring in the U.S. since the 1990s. To support the appropriate use of these controlled substances and inform public health interventions to prevent drug abuse, most states have implemented a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP). In a latest study, researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health evaluated the impact of these state-wide programs and found that after tripling until 2007, annual rates of prescriptions for opioid analgesics have stabilized although the effects of PDMPs on opioid dispensing vary markedly by state. Findings are published in the March/April issue of Public Health Reports.

From 1991 to 2010 the annual number of prescriptions for opioid analgesics in the U.S. almost tripled, from about 76 million to almost 210 million

“We found that PDMPs administered by state health departments appeared to be more effective than those administered by other government agencies, such as the bureau of narcotics and the board of pharmacy, ” said senior author Guohua Li, MD, DrPH, Mailman School of Public Health professor of Epidemiology and director of the Center for Injury Epidemiology and Prevention.”

The press release can be accessed at: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-03/cums-pfo031014.php

Source: Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health – March 10, 2014

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