“The positive effects of substances of abuse are well known. Feeling high, energetic and relaxed is rewarding and easily leads to repeating drug or alcohol intake. But when addiction sets in, there is a loss of control that translates into compulsive drug/alcohol seeking behavior that becomes associated with non-rewarding, or even aversive effects. Recent research has focused on the negative effects of addiction, using animal models to understand the mechanism of negative reinforcement and translating these results into human treatment studies.
Read more at: http://www.asam.org/magazine/read/article/2015/06/12/targeting-the-brain-stress-system-to-treat-addiction?
Source: American Society of Addiction Medicine – June 12, 2015